InclusionToC – Theory of Change for the Inclusion of Women Migrants in VET

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Use the participatory approach of Theory of Change to make VET providers more inclusive of migrant women, and enhance migrant women’s transversal competencies and leadership skills, contributing to their personal empowerment.


VET education is an important framework for the inclusion of the most disadvantaged groups in society and more especially migrants. VET institutions themselves are not always adapted to the needs and specificities of migrants, and women migrants in particular. This specific group may encounter various obstacles including cultural differences, linguistic barriers or specific discriminations because of their gender. According to an OECD report (2019), Unlocking the Potential of Migrants, host countries have a tendency to misunderstand migrants’ professional potential and skills, while migrants themselves are not sufficiently aware of what VET education has to offer to them (Jeon, 2019). Additional efforts need to be made to adopt a gender sensitive approach since women and men with a migrant background have different needs. Another report published by the European Institute of Gender Equality (EIGE, 2019) reminds us that “currently, most EU and Member State policies on education and training have been designed using a ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach that does not distinguish between the different needs of women and men”. Applying the Theory of Change to VET education environments will help address these problems in a structured, effective and sustainable manner.

The idea of InclusionToC is to use the Theory of Change (TOC) to foster the inclusion of under-privileged groups such as migrant women in VET education.


  • Upskill VET staff and trainers to use the Theory Of Change (TOC).
  • Upskill migrant women by enhancing their soft skills and leadership competences.
  • Raise VET staff and trainers’ awareness about the obstacles related to the intersection of migration and gender inequality.
  • Help VET organisations use a participatory method (involving VET staff and migrant women) to apply TOC in VET institutions.
  • Empower migrant women and enhance their soft and leadership skills, to work as role-models in their own communities.


  • Mapping of practices already in use by VET organisations for the inclusion of migrant women to better identify their needs.
  • Development of the curriculum and learning materials for the design of a training course.
  • Guidance and support to VET organisations for including the TOC methodology into their work.
  • Organisation of trainings on leaderships, soft skills and self-development for migrant women.


  • Training course on the importance of applying inclusion policies in VET and the use of the Theory of Change.
  • Digital platform for the participatory implementation of TOC for the development and application of inclusion strategies in VET organisations.
  • Training guide on leadership, self-development, and empowerment of migrant women.
  • Newsletters


  • Greater awareness on the importance and benefits of using inclusion practices for migrant women in VET education.
  • At least 20 respondents to a survey and 5 women and representatives of VET organisations involved in a focus group to understand their needs.
  • Empowerment of migrant women through the enhancement of their soft skills, their self-awareness, self-development and leadership skills.


Il progetto

InclusionToC – Theory of Change for the Inclusion of Women Migrants in VET

Numero di progetto


Data di attuazione

01/03/2022 – 01/03/2024

Istituzione Finanziatrice

KA220-VET – Cooperation partnerships in vocational education and training



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